Total inpatient costs for patients who report being allergic to penicillin are much higher than for those who don’t report an allergy, according to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis.
The review, which eventually included 30 articles, found that total inpatient costs ranged from an average $1,145-$4,254 higher per patient with a reported penicillin allergy compared to nonallergic patients, said, and his associates. Outpatient prescription costs were also estimated to be steeper, running $14-$93 higher per patient who reported a penicillin allergy.
This overreporting of penicillin allergies is a problem for the patient and the health care system because “reported antibiotic allergies have been associated with suboptimal antibiotic therapy, increased antimicrobial resistance, increased length of stay, increased antibiotic-related adverse events, increased rates of C. difficile infection, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, death, as well as increased treatment cost,” said Dr. Mattingly and his coauthors.
Health care providers often “tend to take reported allergies at face value,” said coauthor Anne Fulton, suggesting that primary care practices can help by considering skin testing for those patients who carry a label of penicillin allergy, but don’t have a documented confirmatory test. The cost for a commonly used skin test for penicillin allergy runs about $200, said Ms. Fulton, a doctoral candidate at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in an interview.
When conducting the meta-analysis, Dr. Mattingly and his coauthors converted all figures to 2017 U.S. dollars, using Consumer Price Index figures to adjust for inflation. This yields conservative estimates for cost, as drug and health care prices have far outstripped the general rate of inflation during the period in which the studies occurred, Ms. Fulton acknowledged.
The investigators highlighted the need for ongoing study in this area. “To our knowledge, there are no evaluations of long-term outpatient outcomes related to the effects of PCN allergy and the potential impact of delabeling patients who do not have a true allergy,” they wrote.
Ms. Fulton agreed, noting that the studies covered in the meta-analysis were primarily focused on short-term outcomes, though there are many potential long-term benefits to delabeling patients who are not truly penicillin allergic.
For the patient, this includes the opportunity to receive optimal antimicrobial therapy, as well as potential savings in copays and other out-of-pocket expenses for outpatient medications, she said.
As antimicrobial resistance becomes an ever more pressing problem, there are more opportunities for targeted therapy if inappropriate allergy labeling is addressed, Ms. Fulton added.
Further study should use “cost-effectiveness analysis methods that include societal and health sector perspectives capturing immediate and future outcomes and costs to evaluate the use of skin-testing procedures in either inpatient or outpatient settings,” the investigators wrote.
The study was supported by ALK, the manufacturer of Pre-Pen, a commercially available penicillin allergy skin test.
SOURCE: Mattingly TJ et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Jan 31.